OPTIC NERVE DAMAGE
Optic Nerve:-The optic nerve transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. In humans, the optic nerve consists of approximately 1.5 million nerve fibers, originating from cells in the retina termed “retinal ganglion cells”.
Optic Nerve Damage:-
Optic nerve damage is any kind of injury or damage to the optic nerve, including trauma, inflammation, disease or deterioration. Optic nerve damage is also called optic nerve atrophy or optic neuropathy. The optic nerve is the nerve that connects and transmits information between the eye and the brain. Optic nerve damage can lead to vision distortion, vision loss, and blindness within the eye, there are many elements that work together to create vision. Light flows through the cornea and the pupil into the lens before it is projected onto the retina in the back of the eye. The retina transforms light into electrical impulses that are transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain. The eyes are protected by the bones of the orbit and move through the actions of the eye muscles, which are controlled by nerves.
A variety of diseases, disorders and conditions originating most often in the eye and the nervous system can lead to optic nerve damage. Optic nerve damage can result from:
1. Compression of the optic nerve
2. Glaucoma, or high pressure within the eye
5. Interruption in blood circulation to the optic nerve
6. Malignancy (cancer)
8. Multiple Sclerosis
Stem Cell Therapy for Optic Nerve Damage:-
Vision lost due to optic nerve atrophy cannot be recovered if the cause can be found earlier; further vision loss and blindness may be prevented. Currently there is no treatment option for optic nerve damage patients but after many clinical and experimental studies it has been proved that stem cells transplantation via “retrobulbar and intravitreous” can again regenerate retinal ganglion cells and their axons in the optic nerve.
Stem Cell Therapy for “eye related disorder” provides some major advantages are as follow:-
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1. Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration
2. Regenerate Retinal Pigment Epithelial cells
3. Regenerate of photoreceptor cells
4. Provides revascularization
PROTOCOL OUTLINES FOR “OPTIC NERVE DAMAGE” TREATMENT:
Exact protocol is based after evaluation of complete case study
1. We refer to transplant autologous bone marrow derived stem cell concentrate (BMSCs) via intravitreous and retrobulbar
“Bone marrow-derived stem cells concentrate (BMSCs)”provide a rich growth factor environment that may enhance the new blood vessel formation and contains all types of regenerative cells including:-
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs):- MSCs which differentiate into many types of cells such as Neuron, bone, cartilage, muscle and so more and also provide immune regulatory property.
Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs):- HSCs which differentiate into all types of blood cells and also provide enhance environment for MSCs activation.
Endothelial Stem Cells (ESCs):- ESCs which differentiate into all types of blood vessels.
1. To modulate the regeneration process
2. Recruit bone marrow progenitor cells to loci of injury
3. Provide adhesion site for stem cells
4. Platelets fibrin provides migration highway at the site of injury
5. We also transplant cultured mesenchymal stem cells (isolated from bone marrow and cord tissue) to fulfill the requirement of MSCs cell dose because the cell dose of MSCs is low in bone marrow concentrate.
6. We provide 3-4 different doses of stem cells at some specific interval to make the treatment better for optic nerve damage treatment.
Follow-up with patients:-
Our medical staff members will be in contact with patients to get complete follow-up at 1, 3, 6 month intervals to monitor all the evaluation.
1. Quigley et al. 2004 (Nature Publishing Group). Stem Cells to replace the optic nerve.