A spinal cord injury usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae. . Instead, an injury is more likely to cause fractures and compression of the vertebrae, which then crush and destroy axons - extensions of nerve cells that carry signals up and down the spinal cord between the brain and the rest of the body. Spinal cord injury effects vary according to the type and level of spinal cord injury, and can be sorted into two main types: Complete and Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury
Complete spinal cord injury, there is no function below the "neurological" level, defined as the lowest level that has intact neurological function. If a person has some spinal injury level below which there is no motor and sensory function, the injury is said to be a complete spinal cord injury.
Incomplete spinal cord injury will retain some sensation or movement below the level of spinal cord injury. Incomplete spinal cord injuries may recover some walking ability. In addition to a loss of sensation and motor function below the point of spinal cord injury, individuals with spinal cord injuries will often experience other complications of spinal cord injury.
Extensive research has been carried out on how stem cells can help in the spinal cord injury treatment.